Sandra Cointreau             

Address:                12 Church Street, Roxbury, CT, 06783, USA

Telephone:            1 (860) 806- 7326 (mobile)

Birthdate:              November 22, 1947

Citizenship:           USA (born in USA)

Website:       :




Sandra Cointreau, a civil/sanitary engineer (also referred to as civil/environmental engineer), is a skilled communicator with extensive experience working with diverse communities from slum dwellers and waste pickers to high ranking government officials and corporate executives, from marsh arab sheikhs to military colonels, from children to elders.  Her work is characterized by clarity and  integrity, and her field efforts to assess local needs in over 60 countries have lead to recognized appropriate solutions.  She is good at marketing and client development, as well as mentoring and staff development.

She has 40 years of experience in humane and sustainable environmental auditing, compliance, resource protection and mitigation, with extensive design, planning, and environment assessment.  This includes work in remediation of contaminated sites, waste management, pollution control technology, infrastructure private sector participation, economic instruments, occupational health, social inclusion of informal sector, and stakeholder involvement.

Technically she has worked on:  design of civil works, specification of equipment, bills of quantities, supervision of implementation, evaluation of tenders, regulatory development, environmental assessment, and negotiation of works and service contracts to reduce costs and improve performance.   She raised significant funds in each of her corporate positions and managed client relations with government agencies and industrial clients; and she raised an exemplary level of funds at the World Bank for applied research to expand the Bank’s knowledge base for portfolio growth.

Sandra has done cutting edge development of knowledge on methods for holistic technology selection, private sector involvement, economic instruments to support waste systems, health and occupational safety of waste workers and informal sector recyclers, and the wide range of persistent pollutant and health/welfare issues associated with livestock wastes management.

Synergy and creativity are at the heart of her work, weaving together in-depth literature research, extensive technical field work, diplomatic dialogue to understand the large context, and cross-sectoral multi-disciplinary team interactions in more than 60 developing countries.  She has been dedicated to knowledge sharing and enjoys all knowledge development roles of researcher, team player, teacher and mentor.

Comparative Global Experience.  Sandra has performed more than 150 field assignments in over 60 countries, including:

  • Latin America and Caribbean:   Argentina, Ecuador & Galapagos Islands, El Salvador, Jamaica, Haiti, Peru, Colombia, Paraguay, Mexico, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Sint Maarten, and Trinidad & Tobago;
  • Eastern Europe and Europe:   Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Latvia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Turkey, Belgium and Holland;
  • East, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia:  India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines, South Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, People’s Republic of China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal and Azerbaijan;
  • Middle East, North Africa and Africa, and Southwest Asia :   Mozambique, Morocco, Tunisia, West Bank/Gaza, Jordan, Syria,  Abu Dhabi UAE, Egypt, Mauritius, Nigeria, Benin, Guinea, Ghana, Gambia, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, Sierra Leone, and Zambia.

Technical Consulting. Corporate clients:  Companies in various manufacturing industries including:  chemicals, geo-textiles, iron and steel, medical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and environmental control equipment

  • Industries:  chemicals, geo-textiles, iron and steel, medical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and environmental control equipment.
  • Governmental agencies, institutions, and the military:  US Environmental Protection Agency; US Army Corps of Engineers; US Coast Guard, US Army – Edgewood Arsenal, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, and the historic West Point Foundry; U.S. Navy, Norfolk; County Fireman’s Training Center; New York City; and other state and municipal governments throughout the US and the world.
  • Banks and International Development Agencies:  World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, US Trade and Development Agency, USAID, World Health Organization, Swiss Development Corporation, Asian Development Bank, European Development Bank, German Technical Cooperation Agency, Danish Development Agency.

Employment History.

  • Independent Consultant, 2010-present
  • World Bank, Washington, DC, Global Solid      Waste Advisor, 2004-2009
  • Research Triangle      Institute (RTI), Advisor for Utility Reconstruction in the South Region,      Iraq, 2003
  • Solid Waste      Management Consulting Services, Sole Proprietor, Connecticut, 1991-2003
  • Malcolm Pirnie,      Inc., Environmental Consulting Engineers, Senior Associate, White Plains,      NY, 1988-1991
  • Solid Waste      Management Consulting Services, Inc., Owner/President, Connecticut,      1978-1988
  • World Bank,      long-term consultant, posted at headquarters office in Washington, DC,      1981-1984
  • Arthur D. Little,      Applied Research and Strategic Engineering Consultants, Cambridge, Mass.,      1974-1978
  • US Army Corps of      Engineers, Water Resources Management, Waltham, Mass., 1971-1974


Additional Business Activities.  Sandra enjoys entrepreneurial activity from  her farm house in Connecticut.  With her daughter, Maya, she participates in Earth Lodge which produces herbals and flower essences for animals and also operates an energy healing and teaching center.  See  She and her daughter have published several books under the aegis of Earth Lodge Publications, including books on animal herbals, energy healing, complementary animal therapies, and meditations.  Sandra also operates a licensed breeding kennel for standard poodles, called Stoney Brook Farm Kennel, which averages one to two litters of 5 to 15 puppies yearly.  See .  She has been painting water colors for over twenty years and sells her work and donates for silent auctions that help the community. See  .


Secondary Languages. Spanish (modest), French (modest).  Speak conversationally on my technical subjects and can read, but not write in Spanish and French.



Northeastern University, BSCE in Civil/Sanitary (Environmental) Engineering; in the cooperative education program which included 27 months of professional experience in civil engineering design offices.  In her senior year she was honored with the Ford leadership award.  1965-1971

EIT certified, 1971.

OSHA certified health and safety training in hazardous materials handling for hazardous waste site remediation (i.e., received both site work training and on-site supervisor training).  1989-1990

World Bank, a wide range of training and lecture activities on waste management and climate change, as well as training in negotiation and executive coaching.


2012 – SWANA Lawrence Lecturer – Selected by the Solid Waste Association of North America as the individual to receive this special award for “outstanding contribution to the solid waste sector”.



Independent Consultant, various clients, 2010-present.  .(India, Pakistan, Brazil, Benin, Kyrgyzstan, Egypt, Abu Dhabi Emirate, Nepal, Kenya, Azerbaijan, and Zambai).

Field work to assess and develop integrated solid waste strategic plans, private sector participation arrangements, appraise urban infrastructure projects, develop investment plans, and write procurement documents for financing by development agencies, applied research for investors on waste-to-energy and life-cycle rationales for technology choices,  cutting edge work on special wastes, including livestock wastes and hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated lands, and teaching/training/lectures. Includes work with industrial clients to help them improve the waste reduction/recycling and choose among technical options

She worked in Kyrgyzstan over a 1 year period for the ADB Issyk-Kul project, evaluating landfill design and size requirements, as well as costs, writing bid specs for collection vehicles and containers, developing concepts for supportive project elements of social inclusion, landfill and transfer siting, and facility setback requirements.

She worked in Abu Dhabi Emirates over a 2 year period as the senior advisor of a consulting team to develop policy, strategy, KPIs, tenders, contracts, and other activities for the Abu Dhabi Center for Waste Management, including landfill contracts.  The team assessed more than 25 Abu Dhabi solid waste contracts to provide recommendations on how they could be improved and renegotiated.  Improved procurement procedures and new contract templates were developed.

She worked in India to conduct a national solid waste private sector participation review for the World Bank, at the request of the India MoUD, and over 35 solid waste contracts were assessed with recommendations to State and Central Indian governments on how to improve outsourcing and PPPs.  This work was approved for World Bank/GoI publishing and a Guidance Document on PSP/PPP for solid waste outsourcing was developed for the MoUD.

She conducted an assessment nationally of solid waste issues and needs for Kenya, through World Bank financing.

She was a solid waste expert and international co-team leader over a 2 year long contract, together with the local co-team leader, for a national solid waste management strategy for Azerbaijan, which includes facility siting studies, social surveys, feasibility studies, site confirmation investigations, investment plans, public consultation, and environmental assessment to implement collection, transfer and waste treatment and disposal systems nationwide for international financing.

She worked in Zambia and was the technical expert and task leader over a 1.5 year period to develop solid waste plans, including disposal remediation and costing,.  Development of the solid waste improvements was conducted over a 15 month contract collection, recycling, transfer and disposal plans and costs.  She helped to establish the first solid waste management utility and related national law, as well as utility regulator for Lusaka Province, as replicable example for all provinces of the country.  The work included Sandra writing the procurement documents for collection and disposal.

In the assignments above for India, Azerbaijan, Kenya and Zambia, a key issue was the development of suitable solid waste siting criteria, which meant updating the criteria that she had earlier developed for The World Bank.

Examination of private sector outsourcing and economic instruments, as well as social inclusion needs, was included in each of the above activities.

World Bank, Global Solid Waste Management Advisor (2004-9).

Training and knowledge sharing with of staff through numerous events and other venues, particularly the solid waste website: .

Researched the basic sanitation disease elements of Avian Influenza and other zoonotic disease to develop excreta and animal/bird disposal guidance.

Obtained grant funds for a global study of municipal live markets, municipal slaughterhouses, and municipal dumpsites as key links in the spread of animal/bird diseases.  Widely discussed the findings with international agencies to obtain support for the improvement of public live markets and slaughterhouses.  Supported a substantial increase in the Bank’s lending portfolio to address improvement of these facilities.  Obtained additional funds for guidance on how to reconstruct these facilities.

Developed inter-agency collaboration and knowledge development activities on feed additives in intensive livestock production and how these additives affect excreta treatment efficacy and pollutant fate and transport.  Development of proposed Interagency Alliance for Humane Sustainabililty in Livestock Production and Processing, including private sector and NGO partnerships.  Researched cost recovery, intergovernmental transfers and economic instruments to provide new guidance to staff on sustainable cost coverage for waste management.

Obtained funding for collaboration with USEPA in the use of its comprehensive holistic cost model for solid waste decision modeling and obtained funding for global study and guidance development.  Lead the global application of this holistic modeling tool in 7 regions of the world, examining the emissions, energy consumption, recycling outcomes, and costs of all municipal waste technologies based on local data for costs, fuel, energy, land, recyclables etc.  This global modeling effort substantially supports the technical dialogue between the Bank and its clients in choosing the most sustainable, cost-effective solid waste technologies.

Expansion and support of the Carbon Finance program to enable sustainable financial support to upgrade waste landfill, composting, and recycling, including support to carbon finance methodologies and project development, and mentoring of carbon specialist doing the deal making for the solid waste sector.

Social inclusion efforts with various stakeholders and specialists to improve the Bank’s bottom-up attention to the waste picking communities needs within project development.  Supported social inclusion bottom-up involvement in Brazil, Philippines, Pakistan, India, and Morocco projects, and gender study of the special needs of women waste pickers.

Knowledge development and peer support has been one of the reasons for the huge increase in World Bank lending to the solid waste sector, including creation of new lending in livestock waste management systems, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) wastes, and health care wastes.  Solid waste lending in 2000 to 2006 was 305 Million $US, and increased in 2006 to 2012 to 1,100 Million $US.

Obtained funding and lead the first year of development of the Climate Change Adaptation Handbook for Mayors, a global two-year effort to create the Handbook.

Leader of the Bank’s Solid Waste Management Thematic Group of more than 130 staff working in more 6 sectors;  focused on  improving expertise, information, guidance, and collaboration, expanding on the methods used to create more interactive media and interconnectivity as part of knowledge management for this community of practice within the Bank.

Substantially developed and populated the solid waste website of the World Bank and lead to its high external and internal use statistics.

USAID, Research Triangle Institute (2003).

Among first responders to post-conflict technical assistance to Iraq on local administration, technical strengthening, introduction of privatization, and execution of urgent repairs and reconstruction in the sectors of water supply, sewage, solid waste, and power.  Based in Basrah as the South Region Utilities Engineer.  Obtained 40% of the US AID rapid response grants available for the country and used them to upgrade electricity, lighting, slaughter, water supply, wastewater treatment, solid waste collection, and sanitation education of children.  Developed a team of over 60 Iraqis, each working as independent consultants on these issues.  Developed an accountable procedure of local quotations and tendering, as well as weekly payment, to buy tools and parts to make repairs throughout the South Region.   Implemented an innovative system of project monitoring by digital cameras of all purchases and repair activities, and distributed the first cell phones to field crews and government managers.  Conducted all work in close collaboration with all local government and utility managers, and using thousands of local government and utility staff to do provide labor for key repairs, and contractors to do civil works.  Worked with the team of UN and military organizations to upgrade all Basrah utilities to pre-war levels of service within 6 months (using repairs) while designs were being conducted for major reconstruction by Bechtel and the Corps of Engineers.  Arranged daily time for local elected councilors and British military coordinators came to request rapid response support and sanitation training for the children.  Supported the British military in their efforts to implement improvements, by liaising them with local councilors.  Went out daily in Iraqi dress, in Iraqi cars, with my Iraqi counterparts with minimal disruption in my field activity from May 2003 to December 2003.

Inter-American Development Bank (2002-2003).

Research and preparation of the primary background paper for all Ministries of Environment of Latin America, including the Caribbean and Central American country Ministries, to enable and facilitate their effective participation in a Regional Dialogue Summit in WashingtonDC.  The subject matter of the paper was “Economic Instruments in Solid Waste Management”.  The material was presented by Ms. Cointreau, team lead, and co-author Constance Hornig, attorney, to the Summit in February 2003.   It included revenue-based incentives of environmental or landfill taxes, emission reduction finance, recyclables deposits, and tipping fees.  Also included were non-revenue-based incentives of consumer ratings, contract term extensions, performance-based compensation, example liquidated damage bonus criteria for integrated WM types (collection, recyclables processing, landfills), contract performance assurance mechanisms (performance bonds vs.  letters of credit, guaranties, indemnifications), and product stewardship for recyclables.

World Bank (2001-2002).

Country-wide assessment of solid waste needs in Bangladesh and India, for preparation of a long-term technical assistance program to major cities and the central government.  Training of government officials in appropriate solid waste management technologies.   Follow up work in India, and extension of assistance to the Pakistan cities of Karachi and Lahore, as part of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Programme assistance in the Central Asian Region.  Included training of all key Programme technical staff and participation in a large seminar for local officials.  Outputs included technical direction on disposal and treatment options, guidance on how to involve the private sector, assessment of alternative institutional arrangements, and methods to rationalize collection and transfer.  The work involved 4 trips to the region and included some work sponsored by the USAID Financial Development Project, in cooperation with the World Bank.

USAID, 2001

Kosovo Advisor to all Water, Wastewater, Irrigation and Solid Waste Utilities.  Participated in early stages of strategic planning for the new Utilities.

World Bank (2000-2002).

Development of a cost analysis model, working with a programmer using Visual Basics, for user-friendly assessment of solid waste collection and transfer costs as a strategic planning tool.  The model enables choices among collection and transfer vehicles, assessment of which variables most influence costs, and analysis of the direct haul versus transfer economic break-point.  It facilitates rationalization of collection and transfer costs and is designed for use by solid waste operators in developing countries.

Inter-American Development Bank (2001 and 2002).

Review of country needs in Barbados and development of conception directions for a country-wide law on solid waste management, to include coverage of waste from all sources, including tour ships, cargo ships, medical facilities, industries, commercial establishments, and homes.  Examination of “command-and-control” regulatory instruments, as well as “market-based instruments” was included with recommendations made to the lawyers hired to draft the law.

UNEP, ERM (2001).

Research and writing of the health consequences of the Basel Convention on issues of transshipment and recycling of hazardous wastes.  This work was done as a subcontractor to ERM, a London-based environmental engineering company in the UK, and is posted on UNEP’s web site about the Basel Convention.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2000).

Appraisal of a solid waste management project in Almaty, Kazakhstan, including transfer, collection, and landfill technical options and costs, which lead to full lending for the system within the year.

City of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Fichnter  (2000, 2001 and 2002).

Solid waste management advisor for Tashkent, Uzbekistan, working for the German team headed by Fichnter, Inc., to provide the capital city of Tashkent with institutional strengthening, corporatization, privatization, and strategic planning assistance on a project co-financed by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and development.  Work involved managing a local team of consultants conducting field studies on collection productivity, market research on recyclables, possible configuration of private sector collection zones, etc.  On a second component of the project, working for the German team headed by SRP, the work involved design and operating manual development for a new sanitary landfill.

Inter-American Development Bank ( 1999).

Strategic plans for collection, recycling, transfer and disposal of urban solid waste, including institutional and financial arrangements for Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago.  Developed costs, schedules, and terms of reference for project preparation studies and designs.

World Bank (1998).

Country-wide assessment in Mauritius of problems, needs, and solutions to solid waste collection, transfer, and disposal, including evaluation of the merits of incineration and composting, cost analysis of government versus private sector collection and transfer service, and transfer system economic breakpoint.


Dominican Republic, World Bank (1998).

Country-wide reconnaissance of tourism centers throughout the Dominican Republic, and identification of solid waste management needs and potential solutions to improve collection, transport and disposal services.

Inter-American Development Bank (1997-8).

Developed a solid waste strategic plan for the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, including economic analysis of alternative disposal concepts — including (1)  sanitary landfill on the islands, (2)  recycling and composting on the islands, and (3) transfer of all waste to the continent for sanitary landfill.

Development of recommendations to improve land disposal, compost marketing, collection cost-effectiveness, and institutional arrangements for Brasilia, Brazil.

Supported solid waste planning efforts by a consortium of international consultants for the Eastern Region of El Salvador and provided guidance to their data collection efforts.

Diagnostic study of solid waste collection and disposal problems and needs for the capital city of San Salvador, El Salvador, and training on collection route rationalization.  Later returned to support San Salvador and its surrounding municipalities on the privatization of the city’s waste disposal and processing system (particularly a state-of-the-art sanitary landfill), including negotiation proposals for the city to improve existing contract arrangements and model contract terms for new arrangements.

Diagnostic study of solid waste collection and disposal problems for the capital city of Quito, Ecuador, and technical assistance with private sector involvement.


World Bank, EDI Training Institute (1997).

Direction of concept and technical content, including conduct of interviews, for a television documentary and series of training videos on solid waste management innovations in privatization and cost recovery.  Filming focused on several cities in Ghana, and slides were compiled from the Sandra’s own library of slides used for training.  Aside from the film, a training video on private sector participation was developed using some of the footage and photos.  The film and training video are posted on the Bank’s website of and entitled “Waste not a City”.

Swiss Development Corporation (1996).

Development of project concept and costs for improving solid waste collection and disposal the cities of Hue and Nam Dinh, Vietnam.  The work included examining the cost and efficiency of existing collection and sweeping systems and examining the viability of proposed sanitary landfill sites.  Conceptual landfill designs and costs were developed, as well as terms of reference for site investigations to confirm site selection and for design.  The market potential for compost was also studied.


World Bank (1996).

Review and guidance on strategic solid waste planning for Cavite and Laguna Provinces in the Philippines.  Involved review of existing disposal sites, examining the economies-of-scale of municipal, area-wide, provincial, and multi-provincial sanitary landfills for the study area.  Provided technical assistance and training on strategic planning and sanitary landfill siting and design.


World Bank (1996).

Problem definition of solid waste needs for Phnom Penh, Cambodia, for a pending urban infrastructure project.  The work included examining all aspects of the existing solid waste system and developing terms of reference for studies to be conducted in preparation of solid waste investments.

US Trade and Development  Agency (1996).

Desk study on whether the US agency should finance a strategic plan in 3 multi-provincial regions of Thailand.  The issue was whether strategic planning to develop regional sanitary landfills would enhance the privatization potential of landfill development.  Because landfills have significant economies-of-scale, the study concluded that any effort to bundle landfill needs into regional facilities of over 250 tonnes/day would have a positive impact on privatization potential, and thus increase the opportunity for US trade in the region.


World Bank (1996).

Preappraisal activities for siting and designing sanitary landfill facilities for development of the industrial estate and tourism complex at the ex-US Naval Base in Subic, Philippines.

World Bank (1996).

National review of privatization options and development of a strategy framework for upgrading solid waste collection, transfer and disposal in Pakistan.  Involved work in Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, and Faisalabad, Pakistan.  Guided local consultants in surveys of additional secondary cities.


World Bank (1994-1995).

Preparation of solid waste component to upgrade disposal conditions in Riga, Latvia.  Field work included assessing the privatized solid waste collection systems already in place in Riga and assisting the city in screening of potential sanitary landfill sites.  Development of study requirements and oversight of consultants performing groundwater investigations and design of mitigation measures related to environmental degradation at the existing open dump operated by the city.  Development of study requirements and oversight of consultants performing siting, design and environmental assessment of a new sanitary landfill for World Bank project financing.  Following public participation, site selection and design changes were made and the landfill was eventually approved with a biogas recovery facility.


World Bank (1995).

Study of solid waste collection and disposal problems in Fez, Morocco, including examination of privatization of some services for purposes of securing private sector investment, for potential inclusion of a solid waste component in the Sebou River Environmental Project.  Subsequently, conducted a nationwide review of privatization options, including study in Casablanca, Morocco, for potential development of a national solid waste project.

World Bank (1995).

Development of a private sector participation strategy for refuse collection and disposal in Lahore, Pakistan, including analysis of refuse collection costs and determination of economies of scale requirements for private sector profitability.


World Bank (1995).

Review of solid waste planning activities being performed by large international consulting companies for secondary cities in Tanzania and for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  These studies were being conducted for preparation and preappraisal of World Bank projects.

USA Trade and Development Agency (1994).

Assess the current problems and needs in solid waste management for the metropolitan area of Izmir, Turkey.  Developed recommendations for how to improve solid waste collection, composting, and disposal, including recommended steps to involve the private sector in solid waste collection and disposal operations.  Opportunities for USA trade in hospital waste management and general waste transfer were developed.

World Health Organization and World Bank (1994).

Advisor and participant to the Romanian Institute for Environmental Studies in their preparation of a solid waste feasibility study for Brasov, Romania.  Work included collection of data on the cost of refuse collection by various techniques, assessment of the potential market for compost, conceptual design of improved solid waste disposal, and examination of hospital waste management problems and needs.

World Bank (1994-97).

Preparation, appraisal and implementation of solid waste component for urban project financing in several major cities of Ghana including Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi, Tamale and Tema.  Project included implementation of new sanitary landfills and improvement of the institutional and financial capacity of local government to involve the private sector in solid waste collection.  A model service agreement for contracting or franchising of solid waste collection, street sweeping, and drain cleaning was developed, together with proposed licensing arrangements and performance monitoring procedures.  Direct cost recovery was implemented, as well as a segregated account for solid waste.

World Bank (1993-95).

Developed the solid waste component of 2 billion dollar emergency assistance project for Gaza and West Bank as part of the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.  Component included plans, designs, and civil works to implement new transfer stations and disposal facilities, as well as determination of the fleet requirements for solid waste collection.  Returned to provide implementation assistance.

State of Maharastra, India (1993-94).

Advisor/reviewer to the solid waste management planning effort for Bombay, India which was conducted by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute of India.  Guided the type of data collection which would most enable analysis of the economic differences among collection and disposal alternatives.

USAID (1993-94).

Team Leader for development of a solid waste management plan for collection, recycling, and disposal in Montego Bay, Jamaica, and involved addressing institutional and financial arrangements which were relevant for all cities in Jamaica to improve their solid waste management practices, including private sector participation arrangements.

World Bank (1993-95).

Preparation of solid waste management privatization strategy for Conakry, Guinea, including assessment of collection and disposal needs and costs for World Bank project financing.  Preparation of conceptual designs and budgetary costs for development of a new sanitary landfill.  Guidance for privatization efforts, including development of equitable service zones and cost analysis basis for a tariff structure.  Efforts lead to implementation of franchise service with direct cost recovery from households to solid waste collection franchisees.

World Bank (1992).

Assessment of the potential for private sector participation in solid waste collection and disposal services in Nigeria, focusing on the cities of Onitsha, Ibadan, and Lagos, Nigeria.  Project provided important insights on the hidden costs of bureaucratic inefficiencies and corruption as a hindrance to effective privatization.

World Bank (1991-93).

Review of privatization of municipal solid waste management services in Indonesia, including field research with a team of local consultants on cost and productivity differences between public and private service delivery.  Seminar provided to Indonesian solid waste managers on the issues and methods of privatization appropriate to their site-specific conditions.  Project facilitated important policy and procurement changes at central government level, including promotion of multi-year contracting for solid waste collection services and concession contracts for implementation of large solid waste facilities.

DANIDA – Danish Technical Cooperation Agency (1992).

Assessment of solid waste disposal needs for Ho Chi   Minh City, Viet Nam.  Specifically reviewed viability of altering the design and operation of an existing composting facility in order to make a more marketable and affordable compost product.  Study involved assessment of the potential market for compost and the quality of product which consumers would accept.


World Bank (1991).

Determination of whether solid waste collection and disposal inadequacies in Bogota, Colombia, were significantly affecting water quality conditions of the Rio Bogota.  Reviewed the solid waste management system of Bogota and the issues of clandestine dumping of municipal and industrial wastes.  Relative to other sources of water pollution, such as sewage and storm drainage, solid waste was not determined to be a significant problem at the time.

World Bank (1991).

Developed and directed the first training course on solid waste management for staff project managers at The World Bank.  The two-day course included lectures on collection, recycling, transfer, composting and institution­al/financial arrangements given by S. Cointreau Levine.  Lectures on landfill design and incineration given by others.

World Bank (1990-92).

Developed and appraised proposed solid waste management project for US$80 million to Seoul, Korea.  Project preparation included designs for a sanitary landfill for 30,000 tonnes/day, eight transfer stations for 20,000 tonnes/day, improvements to collection systems, and source separation and area-wide recycling centers.  Conducted economic analysis of alternative loading (open top, pre-load compaction, or stationary compaction), storage (platform or pit) and unloading equipment (push-blade, live-floor, or mobile landfill-tipper) as input to the design efforts performed by local consultants.  Reviewed final designs for transfer station and landfill to confirm whether mitigative measures had been incorporated to minimize potential environmental impacts.  Landfill and one transfer station was implemented, but with local financing.

World Bank (1990-93).

Developed prospective solid waste project for US$100 million loan to Manila, Philippines for World Bank financing.  Prepared terms of reference for selection of local consultants to conduct design and environmental assessment of transfer stations and sanitary landfills.  Performed economic analysis of alternative collection techniques and analysis of the economic benefits of implementing transfer stations.  Provided technical assistance and oversight to the local agency staff and local consultants engaged in final design and environmental impact assessment.  One transfer station and two sanitary landfills were implemented, but with local financing.

World Bank (1990).

Evaluated solid waste management needs for 10 communes in Yugoslavia, including assessment of the viability for disposal by sanitary landfill given the special problems of the prevalent karstic geology.

World Bank (1990).

Developed environmental impact assessment guidance for the World Bank to use in solid waste management project development.  The guidance was published as part of the Bank’s “Environmental Source Book”.

Corps of Engineers, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.(1988-90).

Manager of $1.8 million design effort to remediate contamination at East Foundry Cove Marsh in the Hudson River, part of the Marathon Battery Superfund project.  The design included dike containment of the marsh, vegetation harvesting, excavation of marsh sediments, dewatering and water treatment, chemical fixation of sediments, and restoration of the marsh.  Supplemental site studies to support design included pilot testing for water treatment and sediment fixation, sampling of sediment and vegetation, and Stage I archaeological surveys — these were the first archaeological surveys done on a Superfund project in the USA.  Managed formal Value Engineering workshop which led to design changes projected to cut the costs by 40 percent, or 8 million U.S. dollars — this was the first value engineering exercise accomplished for a Superfund project in the USA.  Also, managed $1.4 million Stage I and II archaeological surveys for Marathon Battery Superfund site under ARCS contract.  In 1992, the project won the national awards: Grand Prize of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers,  Award of Excellence for Military Projects from the US Arm Corps of Engineers,  Grand Award from the American Consulting Engineers Council, First Prize from the New York Association of Consulting Engineers.

U.S. EPA, Region II, (1989).

Managed remedial investigation and feasibility study of an industrial site contaminated with plating wastes under ARCS contract.  Work specifically focused on determination of groundwater contamination problems.

Corps of Engineers, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (1989).

Manager and principle writer of a white paper for submission to U.S. Senate and House members and key federal government administrative leaders to recommend that the Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency implement a strategic planning effort for the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region.  The planning effort would examine solid waste, sludge, construction/demolition, and ash management needs and develop integrated and area-wide alternative solutions.

Barranquilla, Colombia, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.(1988-89).

Manager of the planning and technical assistance team from Malcolm Pirnie, as part of a joint venture of four companies under contract to provide institutional development to the Empresas Publicas Municipales of Barranquilla, Colombia, the public authority which provides water, sewerage, drainage and solid waste services to the urban population.  The Malcolm Pirnie team focused on improvements to the solid waste management sector, while teams from other companies in the joint venture focused on improvements to the other service sectors.  The project was financed through a World Bank credit.

Large Chemical Company, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (1988).

Manager of analysis of wastewater treatability and air pollution controls for a major new pharmaceutical plant expansion in Puerto Rico.

County Fireman’s Training Center, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (1988).

Managed the effort to develop a site utilization plan to protect fire fighters during training (including live burns) against gaseous organic pollutants emanating from an adjacent municipal landfill and from on-site contamination.  Center trains more than 10,000 volunteers.

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.(1988).

Manager for remedial investigations at a town in Minnesota where there were several underground plumes of contaminated groundwater, in order to identify the source and extent of pollution.

The Government of The Gambia, (1987).

Development of solid waste plan for the city of Banjul, The Gambia, including investigation of privatization of various aspects of collection and disposal, development of equipment and labor requirements and associated costs, and recommendation of institutional arrangements.

USA Trade and Development, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (1987).

Worked with a team to develop a solid waste master plan for collection, transfer, disposal and resource recovery in Bangkok, Thailand, including investigation of recycling, composting, and municipal strengthening.

The World Bank (1987).

Development of the plan for upgrading efficiency and effectiveness of municipal solid waste collection and disposal in Amman, Jordan.


Lagos State Government, Nigeria (1986-87).

Solid Waste Advisor to the Ministry of Works, Department of Environment in Lagos, Nigeria, for technical assistance and training in implementing the city wide solid waste improvement project financed by The World Bank.  Included technical specifications, facility designs, bid evaluations, equipment allocation, and operations improvements related to collection equipment, transfer station facilities, workshops and sanitary landfills.

The World Bank, Nigeria (1987).

Development of solid waste plans for purposes of technical, institutional and financial appraisal of needs, and recommendation for World Bank project involvement in Ibadan, Nigeria.  Examined existing public and private collection systems to determine how to optimize costs and effectiveness, determined landfill disposal requirements, recommended equipment and staffing requirements, and provided full costing.

USA Agency for International Development, Thailand (1985).

Consultant to Seatec International.  Solid Waste Advisor to the National Environmental board of Thailand to provide training and technical assistance in planning municipal and industrial solid waste management for the Eastern Seaboard Region, with special emphasis on accommodating the region’s proposed development program for new ports, tourism, industrial estates and associated urban growth.

The German Technical Cooperation Agency (1984-85).

Country survey including visits to Jakarta, Surabaya, Padang, and Palembang to overview existing solid waste management programs, plans and needs in Indonesia.  Design of terms of reference to establish a replicable model of a cost-effective solid waste service within one medium sized city and then develop training materials to enable the experience to be extended to other Indonesian cities.

The World Bank (1984-85).

Development and costing of pilot projects, full-scale demonstrations, technical assistance and training concepts for nationwide solid waste management project in Merida, Acapulco, Ecatepec, Monterrey, Puebla, and Orizaba, Mexico (for both municipal and industrial wastes), financed under a World Bank engineering loan to the central government’s environmental protection and urban development agency (SEDUE).  Followed by implementation assistance to SEDUE.

Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, India (1984).

Provision of technical specifications for proposed fleet of refuse collection and landfill equipment procurement and design basis for sanitary landfill in Ahmedabad, India.  Development of organizational restructuring and improved management changes for the solid waste service.

The World Bank (1984).

Appraisal of local preparation efforts of both a municipal workshop project and solid waste project proposed for World Bank financing in Asuncion, Paraguay.  Development of pilot testing concepts for inaccessible neighborhoods and markets, as well design of equipment procurement specifications.

The German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ) (1984).

Assessment and costing of municipal solid waste management needs for Trujillo, Ica, and Pisco, Peru, as part of an integrated water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management feasibility study.

The World Bank (1984-86).

Technical assistance on writing performance and technical specifications for major international procurement of collection trucks, landfill equipment, and transfer station civil works of Lagos, Nigeria.  Follow-up technical assistance in implementation.


The World Bank (1983).

Research to support development of strategies for solid waste management project development in the Europe, Middle East and North Africa Region of the Bank, largely based on review of World Bank project experience to date and interviews with key Bank project staff and advisors.

German Government Reconstruction Bank (1983).

Consultant to Weidleplan (Architect/Planners) to develop city-wide municipal solid waste plans and investment recommendations for the cities of Gonaives and Cap Haitien, Haiti, as part of an program to upgrade urban infrastructure, public services, and housing conditions, particularly for slum neighborhoods, through the use of local funds and German Government grants.

The World Bank (1983).

Planning and solid waste project preparation for Barranquilla, Colombia, addressing market waste storage and collection, collection service extension to shantytowns, sanitary landfill, workshop fixed equipment, and technical assistance.

UNDP, Integrated Resource Recovery Global Project (1981-87).

Assisted research, development and demonstration efforts to advance the state-of-knowledge of resource recovery in developing countries.  Specifically involved in development of refuse landfill decomposi­tion/consolidation studies in Jakarta, Indonesia, and Bangkok, Thailand; in treated wastewater aquaculture and irrigation studies in Lima, Peru; and scavenger/materials recycling studies in Manila, Philippines; Bandung, Indonesia; and Lima, Peru.

German Technical Cooperation Agency and The World Bank (1981-84).

Assessing the refuse collection, transport and disposal needs to Lima, Peru, for World Bank project financing and German technical assistance under the pending Lima Urban Development Project.  Follow-up review and evaluation of technical assistance efforts.

Sri Lanka National Water Supply and Drainage Board (1981-82).

Project Manager to develop a ten-year solid waste management plan for Colombo, Sri Lanka.  Study included field work to characterize municipal refuse and define adequacy of baseline collection, transport, disposal and maintenance equipment and facilities.  Also involved analyzing organizational management and financial systems for refuse management.

The World Bank (1981).

Reviewed the adequacy of refuse management, equipment and facilities in Kano, Nigeria.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati (1980-82).

Consultant to Woodward-Clyde (Geotechnical) Consultants to develop a guidance manual for the design and operation of remedial action systems for closed or abandoned hazardous waste dumps, especially with respect to mitigation of groundwater contamination.

UNDP, The Philippine Government (1980-82).

Chairman of the Review Committee on Solid Waste Master Planning for Metro-Manila, Philippines.  Responsible for directing the Committee to provide peer review and guidance to the consortium of six contractors developing the solid waste master plan.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati (1980).

Consultant to Southwest Research Institute to develop a training program for regional EPA and state officials to guide design, operation, and monitoring of land disposal and land treatment of hazardous wastes.

The World Bank (1980).

Appraised the adequacy of existing manpower and facilities to meet refuse collection, transfer, and disposal needs on Kanpur, India.  Assessed the viability of composting refuse, in terms of market demand potential, and the viability of co-disposal of refuse and digested night soil.

The World Bank (1979, 1982, 1983).

Performed a problem definition study for Bangkok, Thailand, and prepared a plan of near-term remedial actions to improve access for collection crews to waste generator, worker productivity, vehicle productivity, and compost operations.  Upon request of the Thai government, returned to write the Terms of Reference for a solid waste management master planning effort.  For The World Bank, reviewed the master plan as developed by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency in 1982.  Returned to evaluate equipment and facility needs and reassess potential World Bank investment in 1983.

New York City Department of Sanitation , Ecodata, Inc. (1979).

Participated in rerouting over 1,000 collection vehicles.  In-depth data collection from sanitation foremen and collection crews.  New routes resulted in potential for 50% savings in route miles, and 25% savings in fuel.

The World Bank (1979, 1982, 1986).

Appraised the appropriateness and service level of the existing collection system in Onitsha, Nigeria and the viability of sanitary landfill and composting as disposal operations.  Developed a comprehensive system to collect, transfer, and dispose of wastes for each half of the city, with special regard for the fact that most of the urban poor were housed in the southern half.  Compatible system for collection of night soil and septage sludge also developed.  Returned in 1982 to draft procurement specifications for all equipment included under The World Bank project, and again in 1986 to give implementation assistance.

The World Bank (1978-1980).

Conducted three supervision/monitoring assignments in Jakarta and Surabaya, Indonesia.  Provided technical assistance on issues of refuse baling and transfer, vehicle design, sanitary landfill and resource recovery feasibility.

The World Bank (1978,1980).

Appraised the solid waste disposal needs of Tunis, Tunisia.  Developed a plan to close open dumps, implement sanitary landfill and assess the market viability of composting.  World Bank financing of the plan was negotiated and approved in 1979.  Upon request of the Tunis government, returned to review progress in 1980.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1977-78).

Project Manager on field verification of land treatment of industrial wastes  Research to provide the basis for federally promulgated design guidance.  Involved field sampling and laboratory analyses of groundwater, soil attenuation and bioaccumulation at existing industrial land treatment (soil incorporation) sites.  Involved field interviews and observations to determine environmental and economics impacts.  Consultant to project until 1980.

U.S. Steel Corporation, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1977-78).

Environmental planning of the largest proposed iron and steel plant in the United States proposed to be located in Conneaut, Ohio.  Involved iterative planning to design and environmentally assess the proposed plant so that it would be acceptable to the involved governmental agencies, public interest groups and clients.  Specifically directed the on-site solid waste disposal design and assessed impact issues of water supply, water use, groundwater quality, geologic hazards, mineral resources, shoreline erosion, surface runoff, municipal solid waste management, and storm drainage infrastructure-structure.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1975-78).

Research to support regulation of flue gas desulfurization sludges generated by SO2 scrubbing.  Specifically directed all mine disposal assessment efforts.  First phase involved technology review of all mining categories and disposal techniques to select viable disposal options and then assessment of the environmental issues Ä including groundwater contamination, physical stability, and fugitive particulate emissions; second phase involved directing laboratory studies to address principle environmental issues; third phase involved advice and review on the first full-scale mine disposal demonstration in the United States.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1978).

Review of EPA research on flue gas cleaning to assess the adequacy of ongoing research to support federal regulation and design guidance of flue gas cleaning and subsequent industrial waste disposal.  Task involved investigation of research relative to groundwater contamination from leachates, physical stability of the sludges, and land use after reclamation.

Industrial confidential client, large chemical company, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1977).

Performed field evaluations and audits of pollution control practices within industrial chemical company facilities to determine the environmental acceptability of existing operations, to evaluate compliance with existing or prominently pending regulations, and to assess potential liability of existing operations particularly with respect to hazardous waste disposal.


U.S. Coast Guard, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1977).

Assessment (EIS) of surface and groundwater water quality impacts from facility and secondary development of the LOOP and SEADOCK deepwater ports, including development of materials storage facilities and waste disposal facilities.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1977).

Conducted. conceptualization and economic analyses of underground barrier and dewatering systems at hazardous waste impoundments to prevent groundwater contamination, including bentonite slurry trench, grout cutoff wall, infiltration gallery, well points, liners, and surface caps.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1976).

Technical and economic assessment of seven biological treatment processes for their applicability to hazardous waste streams; namely enzyme treatment, activated sludge, trickling filter, aerated lagoon, waste stabilization pond, anaerobic digestion, and composting.  These seven papers were later incorporated into a book on hazardous waste treatment.


U.S. Army, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1976).

Preliminary design and costing of groundwater reclamation system for Rocky Mountain Arsenal’s leaking hazardous waste impoundment, involving alternative configurations of bentonite slurry trenches, groundwater collection and recharge wells, and groundwater treatment.  The system was built and operated for decades, and was the first hazardous waste remediation in the US.  Consultant to subsequent project to develop a computer simulation of alternative remedial action systems for hazardous waste disposal facilities at various arsenal properties (1978-1979).

U.S. Navy, Arthur D. Little, Inc. (1976).

Assessment (EIS) of water quality impacts from the Navy’s maintenance dredging program around its Norfolk naval yard in the lower Chesapeake Bay area.

New England Communities, Arthur D. Little, Inc.  (1974).

Analysis of remaining sanitary landfill capacities and feasibility of landfill as a long-term refuse disposal option.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, (1971-74).

Team member and later the project coordinator for the wastewater and sludge management strategy for the Merrimack River clean-up.  Iterative planning to design and environmentally assess alternative solutions to regionally manage wastewater and treatment plant sludges.  Involved technology assessment of basic and advanced wastewater and sludge treatment techniques, and direction of government contracts for engineering design, and impact assessment.  Spearheaded continuous interaction between government agencies, public interest groups, and professional staff.

Team member of Boston Harbor wastewater and treatment plant strategy for Harbor clean-up.

Team member of Dredged Material Research Program for improvement of all US dredging by the Corps.

Developed first Corps environmental impact assessment for an existing multi-purpose reservoir, as an example for the Corps to address environmental impact assessment needs at all of its reservoir facilities.

Team member of Corps discharge permit system, which predated the passage of the US Clean Water Amendments and the creation of EPA and its discharge permit system.


Some of my publications are available on my personal website at

Author, Finance Note on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, World Bank, November 2005.

Co-Author, Economic Instruments in Solid Waste Management, Inter-American Development Bank, February 2003.

Author, Guidance Pack:  Private Sector Participation in Solid Waste,  World Bank and Swiss Management Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT),  January 2000.

Author, “Composting Experiences in Developing Countries”, article National Development, December 1998.

Author, “Occupational Health in Solid Waste Management”, paper in the proceedings of the annual conference of the North American Solid Waste Association and the International Solid Waste Management Association, October 1998.

Co-Author and Editor, Urban Waste Management:  Examples and Best Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank, AFTES, May 1997.

Co-Author, “Occupational Health Issues of Solid Waste Management”, chapter in a medical textbook entitled International Occupational and Environmental Health, First Edition, Mosby Publishers, St. Louis, MO, 1998.

Author, Sanitary Landfill Design and Siting Criteria for Developing Countries,  World Bank – Urban Infrastructure Note, 1996, and revised for publication in National Development Magazine, June 1997.

Author, “Design of Transfer Systems for Developing Countries”, Solid Waste Management Association of North America (SWANA) conference proceedings, Washington, DC, January 1995.

Author, Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries, World Bank – Urban Management Programme Publication, May 1994.

Author, “Saving Money in the Short Haul” article in National Development, September 1991.

Author, “Cleaning Up the Cities:  Taking the Politics out of the Trash”, article in National Development, Septem­ber/October 1990.

Author, “Recycling Update,” article in National Development, September 1988.

Principal Author, Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater:  A Status Report on Studies Conducted in Lima, Peru, The World Bank, Applied Research and Technology Technical Note No. 3, Washington, D.C., 1987.

Author, “Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries,” proceedings of the International Water Supply and Sanitation Conference for Developing Countries, sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers, World Bank, and WHO, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 1987.

Co-Author, Recycling from Municipal Refuse:  A State-of-the-Art Review and Annotated Bibliography with Special Reference to Developing Countries, The World Bank, Technical Paper No. 30, Washington, D.C., 1985.

Author, “Solid Waste Collection Practice and Planning in Developing Countries,” Chapter in Urban Waste Management in Developing Countries, Edited by John R. Holmes, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1984.

Co-Author, “Institutional Options for Solid Waste Management and Recycling”, proceedings of the International Solid Waste Management Conference for Developing Countries, sponsored by the UNDP, World Bank, WHO, and the German Technical Cooperation Agency, Bejing, China, November 1984.

Author, “How to do More with Less:  Reducing Solid Waste Service Costs”, article in National Development, Intercontinental Publications, Inc., Westport, CT, November/December 1984.

Author, “Resource Recovery from Municipal Wastes”, feature article in National Development, Intercontinental Publications Inc. Westport, CT,  May 1984.

Author, Environmental Management of Urban Solid Wastes in Developing Countries, World Bank, Urban Development Technical Paper No. 5, Washington, D.C., 1982.

Co-Author, “Urban Refuse”, Chapter in Cities:  The Forces That Shape Them, Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institute, New York, 1982.

Co-Author, “Field Verification of Land Cultivation/Refuse Farming,” presented at EPA M.E.R.L. 6th annual Research Symposium Disposal of Hazardous Waste, March 1980.

Author, “Reclamation of Solid Waste Disposal Areas” (Particularly Mitigation of Groundwater Contamination), presented at the 1979 American Society of Civil Engineers National Conference on Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, July 1979.

Author of 7 chapters on biological treatment, Unit Operations for Treatment of Hazardous Industrial Waste, Noyes Data Corp., New Jersey, July 1979.

Co-Author, “Mine Disposal of FGD Waste,” presented at EPA Annual Symposium of Flue Gas Desulfurization, Hollywood, Florida, November 1977.


Key note talks at SWANA and ISWA meetings, including Singapore, Australia, Austria, UK, and US.

PPP talks on solid waste outsourcing delivered at IFC and IBRD conference in Russia;  and at ADB conference in India.

As Global Advisor for Solid Waste of the World Bank for 5 years (2004-2009), I  gave keynotes and session talks at numerous conferences on topics of:  livestock feed additives as persistent pollutants in waste management from production and processing facilities, livestock market and slaughter conditions, carbon finance opportunities in the solid waste sector, sustainable solid waste principles and practices in developing countries, financial arrangements for municipal waste management in developing countries,  economic instruments for the solid waste sector,  strategic planning of solid waste collection and transfer systems, social inclusion of waste pickers, occupational health and safety of waste management work, and private sector involvement.  I was in charge of routine training and knowledge sharing among the Bank’s global staff, which included web-sessions, video-sessions, workshops that were put on video for all offices, and individual lectures.   The Bank’s website contains slides and videos from a number of the events at  My personal website has some of my key presentations at

Lectures and training workshops for Iraqi officials and consultants, during my 6-months of residence in Basrah as Utilities Reconstruction Advisor for the South Region.  RTI/ USAID, May to December 2003.  Also, developed and managed a program of education for school children in Iraq on sanitation and related health issues, engaging dozens of Iraqi teachers and local officials in creating a safe and welcoming training environment for the children.

“Economic Instruments for the Solid Waste Sector”, lecture to Ministers and Vice Ministers from Latin America at the annual Regional Dialogue of Latin American Environmental Ministries, Washington, DC, February 2003.

“Private Sector Participation in Solid Waste Management”, “Occupational Health Issues”, lectures presented to officials and government personnel in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, December 2003.

“Private Sector Options for South Asia”, “Strategic Planning for Solid Waste Management in South Asia”, training provided to key South Asia personnel of the Water and Sanitation Programme of the World Bank, held in Delhi, India, February 2002.

“Solid Waste Trends in South Asia and Directions for the Future”, lecture presented to Indian local officials dealing with solid waste management, held in New Delhi, India, December 2001.

“Occupational Health Issues in Solid Waste Management”, lecture presented to the European conference of the International Solid Waste Management Association, held in Vienna, Austria, November 2000.

“Global Trends in Sustainable Solid Waste Management” and “Occupational Health Issues of Solid Waste Management”, lectures presented at the Latin American conference conducted by the Inter-American Development Bank, held in Montevideo, Uruguay, November 2000.

“Sustainable Privatization of Solid Waste Management”, lecture presented to the conference of the Global Collaborative Working Group on Solid Waste Management, held in Manila, the Philippines, September 2000.

“Occupational Health Issues in Solid Waste Management”, lecture presented in Torbay, England for the annual convention of the Institute for Waste Management of the UK, June 1999.

“Privatization of Solid Waste Management Services” and “Rationalization of Solid Waste Collection Services”, training retreat for World Bank staff,  held in Toronto, Canada, September 1997.

“Global Trends in Solid Waste Management”.  Urban Infrastructure Conference for Sanitary Engineers, sponsored by AIDIS, San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 1997.

Two days of training to solid waste managers from the Caribbean, Africa, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and South America.  Sponsored by the Institute of Public/Private Partnerships, held in Washington, DC, as part of a 2 week course.  Conducted once in 1996 and once in 1997.

Two days of technical, financial, and privatization training to solid waste managers and mayors.  Sponsored by the World Bank.  Damascus, Syria.  May 1997.

“Global Trends in Solid Waste Management”.  Lecture for the Environtech East Asian Conference on Solid Waste Management.  sponsored by UNEP, Osaka, Japan, June 1997.

“Private/Public Partnerships in Solid Waste Management”.  Overview lecture introducing global workshop of multilateral and bilateral agencies to coordinate their solid waste activities for developing countries.  Organized by SKAT and conducted at the World Bank in Washington, DC, February 1996.

“Privatization of Solid Waste Services” and “Finance and Cost Recovery for Solid Waste Services”.  Overview lectures for regional workshop for West Africa.  Organized by the UNDP Water and Sanitation Group, Urban Management Programme and Institute of African Studies, and held in Ivory Coast, February 1996.

“Overview of Solid Waste Management Collection and Disposal Systems” and “Methods of Privatization and Case Examples”  Overview lectures for regional workshop for Middle East.  Organized by USAID and held in Tunisia, March 1995.

“Private Sector Provision of Solid Waste Services — Context and Options” and workshop facilitation of developing a model contract/franchise document, Seminar by World Bank for Ghanaian local government and private sector participants, Accra, Ghana, July 1995, and follow up workshop training conducted in February 1997.

Monthly Lecture Series to World Bank staff within the Africa Region, 9 lectures on solid waste management, including waste characterization, collection systems, transfer systems, disposal systems, cost recovery, privatization, August 1994 to June 1995.

“Privatization of the Solid Waste Sector”, “Cost Recovery for Solid Waste” and Introduction to Solid Waste Management”, Seminar by USAID and the World Bank for Middle East government and private sector participants, Tunis, Tunisia, February, 1995.

“Private Sector Participation in Solid Waste Management:  Pitfalls and Prospects”, overview speech in the session entitled;  The Business of Sustainable Cities, Second Annual World Bank Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development, Washington, DC, September, 1994.

“Developing Sustainable Solid Waste Systems for Eastern Europe”, keynote speech, European Commission Seminar entitled:  Financing Municipal Solid Waste Management”, Budapest, Hungary in September 1994.

“Privatization Contextual Issues in Indonesia and Methods of Privatization”, lectures and facilitation of panel discussions for two days, seminar sponsored by the World Bank for local government and private sector participants,  Jakarta, Indonesia, September 1993.

“Privatization of Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries”, training lectures at CFED and INTRADOS in Washington, DC, 1993.

“Contextual Issues of Private Sector Participation in Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries”, “Methods of Private Sector Participation and Steps To Privatization of Solid Waste Services”, lectures given at USAID seminars in Prague and Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, in August and September 1992.

“Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries” lecture given at the World Bank in Washington, DC, February 1992.

“Privatization of Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries” lecture given at USAID seminar on privatization in Washington, DC, November 1991.

“Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in Developing Countries”, 2-day course for staff project managers at the World Bank in Washington, DC, October 1991.

“Costing of Solid Waste Systems in Developing Countries”, “Composting of Solid Waste in Developing Countries”, “Incentives for Recycling from Municipal Wastes in Developing Countries”, “Transfer Station Design Concepts and Their Applicability to Developing Countries”, lectures given during week-long seminar on Integrated Waste Management and Resource Recovery, UNDP/World Bank Global Resource Recovery Project, seminar held in Singapore, July 1991.

“Financial Arrangements for Viable Solid Waste Management Systems in Developing Countries”, lecture and week-long workshop leader toward policy paper development on finance and privatization, United Nations Centre for Regional Development seminar in Indonesia, February 1991.

“Recycling from Municipal Wastes:  How do Industrialized and Developing Countries Compare?”, lecture to the World Congress of Local Governments for a Sustainable Future, sponsored by the United Nations Environmental Programme and the International Union for Local Authorities, held at the United Nations in New York, USA, September 1990.

“Provisions for Improving Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries,” lecture and week-long workshop leader toward policy paper development, United Nations Centre for Technical Development seminar in Bulgaria, 1989.

“Policy Considerations for Improving the Solid Waste Sector,” lecture and week-long participation in workshops for policy paper development targeted at Asian metropolises, United Nations Centre for Regional Development seminar in Japan, 1989.

“How to do More with Less:  Reducing Solid Waste Service Costs,” paper presented at international seminar CEPIS (the sanitary engineering institute for Latin America as part of the Pan American Health Organization), Lima, Peru, 1984.

“Solid Waste Management Planning and Upgrading in Developing Countries,” lectures to graduate and special program students at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 and 1994.